Book Review: “Mary Tudor: Princess, Bastard, Queen” by Anna Whitelock

I’m in the midst of reading several biographies of Mary Tudor which I’ve had on my bookshelves for a long time. It is an interesting exercise to see how each writer views the subject and writes about her differently. I know I shouldn’t compare but it’s hard not to.

The first book I read was John Edward’s biography which is a more academic and scholarly book. While it gives good insight into Mary’s personality, Edward’s expertise in Spanish history gives the book more of an emphasis on her marriage to Philip II as well as her mission to return the English church to Catholicism. This book is much different.

Whitelock’s writing is fast, breezy and easy to read. It seems more like novel than an academic work. There’s nothing wrong with this, it’s just different. There is a great deal of documentation on Mary’s life. One advantage to this volume is the author uses the subject’s real words from the archives and manuscripts of the time. This gives the book a real immediacy and increases the intrigue. I like how she quotes letters and ambassador’s documents.

The book is divided into sections just as Mary’s life was delineated. John White, Bishop of Winchester gave the sermon at Mary’s funeral. He says of Mary: She was a King’s Daughter, She was a King’s Sister, She was a King’s Wife, She Was a Queen, and by the same title a king also. So Whitelock divides the book into sections based on these parts of Mary’s life. There is a family tree, a beautiful selection of color photos and an extensive bibliography in this book. I highly recommend it. Now on to Linda Porter’s biography of Mary.

Book Review: “Mary I: England’s Catholic Queen” by John Edwards

This book is one volume in the outstanding Yale English Monarchs series and was published in 2011. This series always delivers high quality and reliable historical research. This book is no exception.

Edwards is an expert in English as well as Spanish history, making him uniquely qualified to write a biography of Mary who married the Spanish King Philip II. A lot of material is covered here. Edwards illustrates Mary’s childhood and describes how she went from being the beloved princess and apple of her parent’s eye to tortured soul. The descriptions of how she was treated by Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell in getting her to acknowledge her parent’s marriage as null and void and her own bastardy are harrowing.

Mary’s valiant fight for the throne is portrayed. Her tortuous decision to marry Philip was made in secret and was announced as a surprise to her council and the kingdom. There is a great deal of unique insight into the personalities of Mary and Philip and nice details about their marriage and partnership in ruling England. There is a chapter in the book where Edward’s gives context and background information on how Calais was lost on Mary’s watch. The loss of this strategic enclave on the continent was the unfortunate a by-product of the Hapsburg and Valois infighting over control of Italy. As Edward’s depicts the history, it is a riveting read.

The greatest contribution of this book are the chapters dealing with Mary’s lifelong dream to return England to the bosom of the Catholic Church. There were many practical and complicated matters to resolve for which there really were no permanent solutions. In this battle, Mary worked with her cousin, the Papal Legate Cardinal Reginald Pole. He was her main advisor. Edwards gives his fair and balanced analysis of why Mary burned the alleged heretics.

At first, the transformation from Protestantism to Catholicism went relatively well Mary. But when Pope Paul IV was elected, the entire operation took a drastic turn. Paul had been a personal friend of Pole but after this election, he began to turn against King Philip II and eventually Queen Mary and Pole were drawn into the conflict. This totally hampered Mary’s dream for England to be Catholic again.

This book is really fascinating. I enjoyed Edwards’s insights into Mary’s personality. If anyone is looking for a complete and enthralling biography of Queen Mary I, I would recommend this one.

Book Review: “Queenship in Medieval France, 1300-1500” by Murielle Gaude-Ferragu

This book is part of a series called The New Middle Ages published by Palgrave Macmillan. The series is dedicated to pluridisciplinary studies of medieval cultures, with a particular emphasis on recuperating women’s history, and on feminist and gender analyses. The peer-reviewed series includes scholarly monographs and essay collections. The book was originally published in 2014 in French. It was translated by Angela Kreiger and published in English in 2016. Gaude-Ferragu is University Professor of History at the Université Paris-13, Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, France.

At the beginning, there is a list of Queens of France covered in the time period given. This book is basically a list of duties required and exhibited for the queen in France and her relevance to the government and the symbolism of royalty. Gaude-Ferragu explains how the queen has a physical body and the royal body. The woman marries the King and there is a wedding ceremony. Following this, there is usually a coronation although in some cases during this two hundred year period, several queens were not crowned (Marie of Anjou, Charlotte of Savoy, etc.) Some of the coronations are retold in detail.

Perhaps the most important duty of a queen of France is to bear the king an heir, preferably male. The lying in period is explained. The Queen is responsible for the children’s upbringing and education. The next section of the book explains the power of the queen. Although women were barred by Salic Law from sitting on the throne and ruling in their own right, many of these women held some form of governing power, whether it was on the King’s Council or as regent for their young sons such as Isabeau of Bavaria. Other queens were not allowed to have much of a role at all. Gaude-Ferragu explains how queens represented the love of the government for the people and her role as intercessor.

Another section of the book covers the Queen’s ceremonial roles such as joyful entries into towns or funerals. The Queen’s household and courtly life is explained such as the operation of her treasury, her income and how it is derived, her library and her support as an advocate and patroness of the arts. The Queen is also expected to display piety in her daily life as well as in the establishment of religious and sacred foundations.

So many things are covered in this book and it is full of delightful personal details regarding the life of some of these women. There are a few illustrations and a comprehensive bibliography. Nothing is lost in the translation of the text. This is a textbook definition of the role of medieval queens in France and I’m sure these duties would be expected of other queens across Europe. Academics and casual readers would enjoy this book. I can’t recommend it enough.

Book Review: “Charles VII” by M.G. Vale

This volume is an English language biography of King Charles VII of France first published in 1974. As the author states in the Preface, this is not a conventional biography. His intention is to write a study of this enigmatic king by utilizing the evidence in a selective manner. Vale gives a contemporary assessment of Charles as both a king and a man as its starting point. He states in the beginning that there is precious little evidence about this king’s reign as many of the records no longer exist.

The first chapter is an overview of the king and his reign as it is viewed by historians in books from the past and how the reign is viewed in context. Vale then begins with a view of the king’s early years up until his meeting with Joan of Arc and his coronation at Reims. Other chapters recall his relationship with Joan of Arc, his son Louis and the nobility of France. The last part of the book cover his later years and then there is a section on the ceremonial king. Vale recounts several ceremonies Charles VII participated in and ends with a long description of his funeral.

Vale has a great deal of insight into the personality of Charles. Where some historians view him as a weak and fearful king, Vale believes just the opposite. He interprets Charles’ personality as very strong, militarily and politically. He believes the king played the nobles off against each other and elevated and destroyed these men with a political purpose. There is quite a bit in this book about the nobles who surrounded the king and their impact on his reign as well as his mistresses and mignons who lived close to the king and played a role in his life. The last chapter covers the later years of Charles’ reign and how his illnesses affected him and his government.

Personally, I enjoyed the recounting of Charles’ relationship with his son Louis as well as Vale’s views on Charles’ personality. Vale has a lot of information on the illnesses of the king which is fascinating. He has several theories about what Charles suffered from. The highlight of this book is the reprint of a memorandum that Charles dictated to his secretary in response to demands from his son Louis. Louis had left the kingdom of France and didn’t see his father for many years. Charles refuses Louis’ demands for surety of his safety and status at court and questions why Louis is so fearful and suspicious. This is a unique insight into the mind of the king and his tortured relationship with his son. While this book is not a conventional biography, it is most interesting and I recommend it.

Book Review: “Yolande of Aragon (1381-1442) Family and Power” by Zita Eva Rohr

The subtitle of this book is “The Reverse of the Tapestry”. Rohr is using the image of the reverse side of a tapestry to describe the life of Yolande. There were many threads woven by Yolande in her diplomacy during the complicated Hundred Years War.

Yolande is an amazing woman. Born in what is now Spain, she grew up in the cultured and educated court of her parents. Several marriages were discussed for her but she was eventually wed to Louis II, Duke of Anjou and titular King of Naples. This brought her into the sphere of the Valois kings of France and the infighting of the nobles during the Hundred Years War. Yolande was a competent and able administrator and adept negotiator. Although there is no documented evidence, historians are pretty certain she was instrumental in introducing Joan of Arc to Charles VII, thereby creating a turning point in Charles’ fortunes. Yolande’s motivation throughout all of her life was the advancement of her family.

Rohr’s book is not a conventional biography. In fact, this is an academic work and is aimed mostly at history faculty and graduate students. I found the writing to be pedantic and for the most part off-topic. The order of the information provided is scattered. It wasn’t until the third chapter (the book is only 199 pages long) that we start to get a glimpse of Yolande as a woman and politician. This is the point where the book gets interesting. Perhaps it is due to the lack of sources that we don’t know that much about Yolande.

I would not recommend this book to a casual reader. It is expensive and not an enjoyable read. However, for an historian, Rohr has done her research and lays out what she found in the sources giving us what little is known about Yolande and her interpretation of her life. A conventional biography on this pivotal personality in Angevin and French history has yet to be written.

Book Review: “The Maid and the Queen: The Secret History of Joan of Arc” by Nancy Goldstone

I have a great deal of respect for Nancy Goldstone as an historian and as a writer. I’ve read of couple of her books and really enjoyed them. This one is no exception.

Goldstone posits her theory that Yolande of Aragon, Queen of Sicily and Duchess of Anjou is responsible for introducing Joan of Arc to King Charles VII during the Hundred Years War. Most historians accept this theory even though there is no written documentation to confirm it. Goldstone tells how the story of Joan of Arc relates to the myth of Melusine, a female figure of European folklore. The story was created for political purposes for the Duke of Berry, uncle of King Charles VI of France to justify his appropriation of certain French castles.

This book tells the basic story of Yolande of Aragon and her political career and the fascinating life of Joan of Arc. Yolande is such a captivating character. She is strong, intelligent, politically savvy and perfectly capable of carrying out all of her intrigues and plans. Yolande’s motivation first and foremost is her family. She marries her daughter Marie to the Dauphin Charles, thereby eventually making her Queen of France. Goldstone gives us all the juicy details.

Although Yolande’s story is interesting, the story of Joan of Arc is enthralling. Goldstone tells us of her upbringing in Domrémy and how this shaped her mission. She tells us all the details of how she tried to gain an audience with Charles VII and of her dangerous journey through Anglo-Burgundian territory to meet him. Joan is given all she needs to fight and she is instrumental in chasing the English from the siege of Orléans thereby saving France from being overrun by the English. Joan was in the fight in armor and wielded her sword.

After some political maneuvering, Joan goes out on her own and is captured by the Duke of Burgundy who sells her to the English. With the help of a French bishop, the English put her through a sham trial and have her executed. All of this is recounted by the author. Nearly thirty years later, there is a reconciliation and Joan’s sentence is overturned by the French. This is history at its best. Goldstone is a master storyteller. I highly recommend this book. Now I must read the other’s on my shelf that are written by her.

Book Review: “Warfare in Medieval Brabant 1356-1406” by Sergio Boffa

After reading Richard Vaughan’s four part series on the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, my interest in the history of the Low Countries was piqued. The medieval duchy of Brabant, along with Flanders, Holland, Hainault and Artois were all coveted by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in the mid-to late fourteenth century. Brabant was one of the most powerful of these principalities in the Low Countries and was subject to internal and external turmoil.

Boffa begins this book with a chapter on all the many conflicts experienced by Brabant during this time. John III, Duke of Brabant had no male heir and died leaving three daughters. He named the eldest, Joan as his successor and she married Wenceslas of Luxembourg. Joan would rule Brabant as duchess for almost fifty years, even after the death of her husband. A war of succession broke out after the death of John III. Louis of Male, Count of Flanders was married to Joan’s sister Margaret and thought he had a claim to the duchy. In addition, Brabant was engaged in some attacks on the Duchy of Guelders and other surrounding principalities attacked Brabant. It was a series of long drawn out conflicts. In the end, through alliances, Brabant was drawn into the Hundred Years War and finally succumbed to being annexed into the Burgundian Empire.

After these chapters of overview, Boffa tells us more details about medieval warfare in this era. He covers the place of warfare in the history of Brabant, the causes of war, the different phases of the war and the strategy and tactics. Next he recounts the powers that were engaged in the warfare such as the Duke and the Duchess and their entourage, the household and the Ducal Council. The combatants during the war included the nobility and chivalry of Brabant, the urban militias, mercenaries, the artillery and the specialists.

The most interesting chapters explain the organization of the armies, the revenues of the Duke, the declaration of war and mobilization, the movements of the troops, the means of transport, encampment and lodgings, provisioning, how orders were transmitted and the structure of the army. This is the most interesting part of the book. I found a notable anecdote here. Boffa explains that in the Low Countries, oats were fed to the horses. In the armies of England, the soldiers ate oats! The end of the book has an explanation of the size of the Brabançon army and military obligations and contracts in the Middle Ages. This is most definitely an academic and specialized book but anyone interested in the subject of medieval warfare will find it has substantial details about how armies worked.